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Bodybuilding has become an increasingly dominant part of popular gym culture within the last century. Developing muscles is now seen as essential for both general health and high performance sport. At the more extreme end, the monstrous built body has become a pop icon that continues to provoke fascination. This original and engaging study explores the development of male bodybuilding culture from the nineteenth century to the present day, tracing its transformations and offering a new perspective on its current extreme direction. Drawing on archival research, interviews, participant observation, and discourse analysis, this book presents a critical mapping of bodybuilding's trajectory. Following this trajectory through the wider sociocultural changes it has been a part of, a unique combination of historical and empirical data is used to investigate the aesthetics of bodybuilding and the shifting notions of the good body and human nature they reflect. This book will be fascinating reading for all those interested in the history and culture of bodybuilding, as well as for students and researchers of the sociology of sport, gender and the body.
With powerful, clearly written advice on how to control and to reduce dramatically unemployment insurance compensation taxes, here is an authoritative, useful guide to the UIC system. The authors draw upon their extensive experience to detail intricacies and pitfalls in the UIC system; they provide principles and strategies to help employers avoid them. With information on documenting and warning employees in cases where discharge may be imminent, proper use of the information in this book can help protect a company against unwarranted UIC tax charges. The authors also guide employers through the appeals process, demonstrating how to prepare, organize, and present a UIC case. Also included are myths and misconceptions about the UIC system, a look inside a local UIC office, and in-depth examination of how to deal with the UIC decision process, from the local office to the highest level of administrative appeal. This guide is an indispensible tool for anyone involved in hiring, discharging, or dealing with unemployment issues. Complete with sample forms and letters, a sample script of a typical UIC hearing, and comprehensive glossary, Controlling Unemployment Insurance Costs is a unique resource for employers in the private sector, and can also be used effectively by federal, state, and local government agencies. Human resource managers in universities and schools, non-profit organizations, and attorneys and paralegals will also find it valuable.
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