At its heart, this book is an examination of how a new structural material - mass-produced steel - came to be first applied to the buildings of one of the world's great cities. The focus is evolution and change in London's buildings and architecture in the late Victorian and early Edwardian period; its emphasis is unashamedly constructional. A great deal has been written about the shape, style and ornament of metropolitan buildings of the period, but comparatively little on their structural anatomy and physiology. The first part examines the technological developments and economic forces that brought structural steel into being. Central to this was the invention of the Bessemer and Siemens-Martin processes which revolutionised steelmaking and enabled the mass production of a metal, which outmatched both cast and wrought iron. Steel became the pillar of a new phase of industrialisation and urbanisation throughout the world, and London, where Henry Bessemer had conducted his initial steelmaking experiments, was one of the first cities to make use of it. The second part of the book is its heart, an examination of how structural steel was exploited in different types of London building before 1910. As steel construction developed, and buildings became larger and more complex, structure was forced back onto the architectural agenda. Techniques of framing evolved to make buildings more open, better lit, more stable, or to give them stronger floors or wider roofs.
Since 1973, Storey's Country Wisdom Bulletins have offered practical, hands-on instructions designed to help readers master dozens of country living skills quickly and easily. There are now more than 170 titles in this series, and their remarkable popularity reflects the common desire of country and city dwellers alike to cultivate personal independence in everyday life.
This succinct book provides a broad panorama of the key economic policy challenges facing the European Union today. The enlargement of the EU and its lacklustre performance over the last decade in terms of employment and productivity growth have prompted wide-ranging calls for economic reform, both at the EU level and within member states. This volume brings together several leading thinkers in the key areas of policy under discussion, ranging from the institutional design of the enlarged EU for efficient policy making, to the extent and nature of the integration process in markets such as those of energy and financial services. It includes an analysis of the problems of macroeconomic policy co-ordination in the EU and an analysis of the reforms in the labour markets and welfare state institutions. Timely and authoritative, this book is accessibly written and will appeal to a wide policy audience.
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